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Wind

About Wind Energy

Definitions

Public interest in the environment and energy is greater now more than ever. Representative issues in the environment and energy are the emission of greenhouse gas and the depletion of fossil fuels. Wind power energy takes the spotlight as one type of renewable energy for solving these problems, and its advantages are as follows.

Long-term planning

Source) WindForce 12 (GWEC, 2005.6)

Wind power energy is being considered as it has enormous potential among renewable energy resources. Its economic feasibility and technology maturity stands out among renewable energy resources.
Recently, it is revealed that wind power energy can secure the potential to compete with the existing power facilities.
Furthermore, the actual usage area for foundation, road, instrument, and control room of wind turbine takes only 1% of the entire wind farm area, so the rest of wind farm area can be used for other purposes such as stock-farming and agriculture.

Wind power turbine occupies the smallest area for generation; usage area by means of power generation is 1,335㎡/GWh for wind power, 3,642㎡/GWh for coal, 3,561㎡/GWh for solar heat, 3,237㎡/GWh for photovoltaic in general. Simply put, wind power turbine takes the smallest area among them.

In addition, pollutants reduction by wind power is very effective, if 1.5MW wind turbine generates 400 MWh per year, then wind power can replace 120~200 tons of coal and reduce the air pollutants by about 2~3.2 tons of SO₂, 1.2~2.4 tons of NOx, 300~500 tons of CO₂, 16~28 tons of slag and ash, 160 tons of suspended solids per year.
As previously stated, wind power generation is valuable because; first, it is the renewable clean energy resource which is not depleted; second, it has economic feasibility and technology maturity by the accumulated technical skills; and finally, it can reduce the pollutants very effectively at low costs. For these reasons, the wind power industry has become the fastest-growing sector of the energy industry worldwide. The world's installed capacity has increased by more than 10 times during the past ten-year period (total of 47,912MW of wind turbine has been installed by the end of 2004) and the generation costs has been gradually declining while becoming bigger and more complex.

There is 50% decrease in generation costs from about the past 20 years, from 8.8c€/kWh in the mid-1980s (when the supply of 95kW wind turbine was started) to 4.1c€/kWh at present (when MW-class wind turbine is supplied).

Characteristics

Wind power generation is the energy conversion technology that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Wind power generation generates electricity through the rotational force of turbine. Electricity is produced by the mechanical energy extracted from the wind’s kinetic energy with the use of rotor blade.

Introduction to research methods resources investigation

1. Collection of wind data from 88 measurement points nationwide from 1996 to 2008 and establishment of a database

2. Establishment of the mapping method for wind map through numerical weather prediction modeling

3.Establishment of the input data (upper-air data/numerical elevation data/land use map data)

4. Calculation of wind field through numerical weather prediction modeling

5. Classification of wind resource class and calculation of wind energy potential

6. Verification of wind map through the measured data on land and sea

Domestic Status

Domestic wind power status

Domestic potential of wind energy on land and offshore is 466 million TOE/year and out of such figure, the available wind resources are 50 million TOE/year.
The suppliable energy potential using wind power is 3.6 GW on land and 8.8 GW on sea.
As of 2009, the accumulated capacity of commercial wind power plant which was linked with the national electricity grid is 342 MW.

Renewable energy supply plan by the 3rd general plan

(Unit: kTOE, %)

Source 2008 2010 2015 2020 2030 08~30
Annual Growth Rate
Wind 106 (1.7) 220 (2.9) 1,084 (9.2) 2,035 (11.6) 4,155 (12.6) (18.1)

Korea Energy Management Corporation - New & Renewable Energy 2010

Installed capacity of wind power plant is 150.44 MW (83 units) in Gangwon-do, 102.36 MW (67 units) in Gyeongsangbuk-do, 77.545 MW (43 units) in Jeju-do, and the sum of these capacities constitutes 95% of the nationwide total capacity.

Renewable energy supply portion of the total electricity production by the 2nd general plan

(Unit: MWh)

Source 2008 2010 2015 2020 2030
Wind 425,297 880,641 4,336,243 8,138,081 16,619,638

Korea Energy Management Corporation - New & Renewable Energy 2010

Plans to promote future technology development

Lead the company’s early entry into the global market by securing the delivery record and operational know-how through the construction of the demonstration and practical complex for large-scale wind farm by the government’s budget.
  • Push through with the strategic technology development to secure world-class development capabilities (5MW offshore wind plant, etc.)
  • Onshore wind power: Construction of two 20MW pilot complex for commercial use (2009~2012)
  • Offshore wind power: Construction of 300MW offshore wind farm (2010~2015)
  • Conduct a precision survey on wind resources to select the optimal location for wind power generation
  • Secure price competitiveness through the localization of core components
  • Develop a 5MW large-scale system, construction and operation technology for offshore complex, and floating wind power plant based on excellent shipbuilding and marine engineering technology for early occupation of the future market.
November 2010, "Offshore Wind Roadmap" including the phased plan is released for early occupation of the world’s rapidly growing offshore wind power market. The plan is leading the domestic offshore wind power industry.
  • Step 1 : Construction of 100MW demonstration complex by 2013
  • Step 2 : Construction of 900MW pilot complex by 2016
  • Step 3 : Construction of 1,500MW commercial plant complex by 2019

Specific plans (Promotion of strategic technology development)

Source Key areas General areas in the short-term Future areas in the long-term
Wind Development of diffusion onshore wind power and offshore wind power over 3MW Development of offshore wind power over 5MW Development of wind power over 10MW and hybrid smart wind system

Korea Energy Management Corporation - New & Renewable Energy 2010

Note)
  • Key areas : Priority areas of considering urgency, technology influence, marketability, need for budget execution
  • General areas in the short-term : Predictable main technical areas after five to ten years
  • Future areas in the long-term : Blue ocean areas in the long-term

The amounts of potential

  • Korea’s total natural potential of onshore and offshore wind resources is 294 million TOE/year (installation capacity is 433GW) whereas the available potential, which is calculated by considering the geographical condition for construction, is 85 million TOE/year (installation capacity is 127GW) equivalent to 30% of the theoretical potential (onshore: 20%, offshore: 35%)
    Technical potential, which is calculated by considering the electricity connection distance (in case the onshore distance is less than 10km, and in case the offshore distance is less than 25km and water depth is less than 30m) is 16 million TOE/year (installation capacity is 21GW) equivalent to 5.5% of the theoretical potential (onshore: 2.6%, offshore: 7.6%)
  • Wind resources potential is expected to be drastically increased owing to the trend of larger installation capacity, development of wind turbine for low wind speed, EEZ (exclusive economic zones), and so on.